PD-L1 is a direct target of cancer-FOXP3 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and combined immunotherapy with antibodies against PD-L1 and CCL5 is effective in the treatment of PDAC.

Excessive expression of PD-L1 marks the poor prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC). Nonetheless, the regulatory mechanism of PD-L1 stays elusive. We lately reported that

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